29.4 how much more in percentage terms sell-side analysts earned on average than their buy-side counterparts. According to a recent survey in Institutional Investor, the average sell-side analyst earned a total of 281,687 in 2007, compared with an average 198,866 for buy-side analysts. 44,000,000,000the amount of equity raised, in dollar terms, by commercial and investment banks since the start of 2008, according to Dealogic. The amount is 150% more than that raised over the same period in 2007 and does not include jumbo deals announced recently by UBS and RBS. UBS plans to raise $15 billion through a rights issue in June and RBS is to raise £12 billion, also through a rights issue. ECM issuance by commercial and investment banks makes up for 30% of all global ECM raised in 2008 year to date, compared with 8% in the same period in 2007.