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VAT on Virtual and Online Programmes

VAT is applicable on virtual programmes to delegates attending from the UK*. If participating from the EU, a valid VAT number is required to ensure VAT will not be charged under the reverse charge mechanism. VAT is not applicable to attendees from all other countries.
*For virtual courses ran through our Asia office, VAT may be applicable to HK and Singapore residents only. Find out more by contacting


Claiming Back Your VAT

All attendees of a London based course incur VAT as a part of the cost of attendance.

Euromoney Learning have partnered with VAT IT to allow you the unique opportunity to recoup the VAT incurred.

Using VAT IT's extensive experience and simple sign-up and refund process, every invoice can be turned into cash for your business.

Claim the VAT that's rightfully yours in four simple steps:

1. Register your interest

2. Sign a few simple documents

3. VAT IT processes your claim

4. Receive your refund

Why choose VAT IT 

VAT IT have spent two decades identifying, researching and perfecting the foreign VAT Reclaim process and built the best back end technology in the industry. By partnering with Euromoney Learning, we can provide you with a fast and effective way to reclaim your VAT which helps reduce the cost of your training.

VAT IT will charge a percentage of the VAT refund if/when it is successful. 

Can I claim back the VAT myself?

You can claim back VAT directly from the UK Tax Authority (HMRC) by completing the following form. 
For European clients, please refer to form VAT 65
All other clients, please refer to form VAT 65A.


You may also be able to claim back your VAT against courses taking place outside of the UK, and we would recommend contacting VAT IT, our specialist partner, to discuss how to do this.

Power Purchase Agreements

Understand PPAs by studying a multitude of real world examples with our virtual course
  • This course will run over the course of 3 days, and has 3 distinct modules each day.   The course will be delivered virtually using video conferencing technology. For more information please contact

    The start time for this course will be 9am GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)



    According to the IEA “More than 70% of the $2 trillion required each year in energy supply investment either comes from state-directed entities or receives a full or partial revenue guarantee.” This revenue guarantee is typically offered as a Power Purchase Agreement in the electricity sector and therefore a crucial element in a project finance environment for IPPs. Bankability of PPAs is especially challenging as most electricity demand growth takes place in emerging countries with offtaker’s creditworthiness at least questionable. Therefore the bankability of PPAs is not only driven by complex contractual clauses within the commercial agreement but by the power sector and country context embedding the foreign invested IPP. More often than not, the project set up requires additional credit enhancements instruments backing the PPA to reach financial close.

    This PPA workshop will draw on a database of some 100 PPAs from across the world and all types of power generation technologies. We will further discuss a wide range of country and project case studies from Emerging Markets and compare them with international experience in the power sector. The seminar experience will require interactive involvement of the delegates to discuss cases, conduct exercises and thorough reading of legal documents.

  • This course will be delivered virtually using online meeting rooms technology. To understand more, please contact

    This course is fully interactive and delegates will each receive copies of materials electronically.


    All times are GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) 


    Daily Virtual Classroom Outline
    0830-0900 Logging in, testing equipment

    0900-1030 1st Module

    - 25 minute session
    - 5 minutes Q&A
    - 25 minute session
    - 5 minutes Q&A
    - 25 minute session
    - 5 minutes Q&A

    1030-1130 BREAK

    1130-1300 2nd Module

    - 25 minute session
    - 5 minutes Q&A
    - 25 minute session
    - 5 minutes Q&A
    - 25 minute session
    - 5 minutes Q&A

    1300-1500 BREAK including exercise

    1500-1630 3rd Module

    - 25 minute session
    - 5 minutes Q&A
    - 25 minute session
    - 5 minutes Q&A
    - 25 minute session
    - 5 minutes Q&A

    1630-1700 Recap of the day, Homework for next day

    DAY 1

    Module 1: The Context Of The IPP Within The Power Sector and project set-up

    • Power Market Structures from Horizontal and Vertical Unbundling to Privatization
    • Difference of Single Buyer PPA and Wholesale market PPA
    • Importance of Energy System Planning and Public Procurement of IPPs
    • Competiveness and Transparency within Tenders and Unsolicited Proposals
    • Local content and potential conflicts of interest
    • Main risks of an IPP during developing, construction and operation
    • Role of project contracts to mitigate risks
    • Why a PPA at all and the fit into the overall project set-up
    • Understanding the link to Project Finance
    • Lenders requirements and debt ratios


    • Financial Structure of Oman Sohar2 Natural Gas IPP
    • Mexico power sector reform: from zero to heroe
    • Vietnam's IPPs Sector Toward Market Liberalisation
    • South Africa best practice IPP procurement program or not?

    Module 2: Overall structure of a PPA

    • Definition of commercial terms
    • Risk to bankability
    • Obligations and Undertakings of each party
    • Conditions Precedents to be on the safe side
    • PPA Definitions and Annexes

    GROUP WORK: Seller & Buyer Role Play getting to terms

    Module 3: PPA Timing and Milestones

    • From Signing to Expiry Date
    • Scheduled Dates, Actual Dates and Events
    • Changing Rights and Obligations at each dates
    • Release of obligations in certain events
    • Pre-COD and Post-COD periods
    • Periods to exercise rights, notify and cure
    • Termination rights not meeting milestones

    GROUP WORK: Analysis & Comparison of two PPA timelines as the core framework for allocating risk between seller and buyer

    DAY 2

    Module 1: Pre-Commercial Operation Date Period

    • Order of execution of other project contracts
    • Back to back requirements with the EPC contractor
    • Development bonds, Performance Bonds and Letter of credits
    • Fine tuning with the Fuel Supply Agreement and Interconnection Agreement
    • Bankable Insurance program for the IPP and EPC contractor
    • Delays caused by lack of utilities, equipment, grid connection and conditions of site
    • Definitions of achieved, declared, contracted and minimum capacities
    • Delay and Performance Liquidated Damages – calculation and different structures
    • Testing & Handover procedures and risk to achieve COD on time
    • Declaration of Commercial Operation Date – an idea becomes reality
    • Deemed COD, Capacity and Energy – as-of clauses to keep going

    Module 2: Post-Commercial Operation Date Period

    • Delivery Point, Metering and Losses – the devil is in the detail
    • Invoicing, Billing and Payments procedures or show me the money
    • Impact on working capital requirements and bankability
    • Availability, Planned Maintenance Outages and requested changes
    • Timing and Charges for Black, Cold, Warm and Hot start
    • Requirements for heat rate, fuel specifications, quality and storage
    • Prudent Utility Practice, emergency procedures and manufacturer warranties
    • Non-discriminatory economic dispatch and conflict of interest
    • Allowed Grid Unavailability Periods, Curtailment and Deemed Energy provisions

    Module 3: Events beyond Business-As-Usual

    • Dispute Resolution, Cure Periods and Arbitration
    • Lenders Step-in Rights
    • Political and Natural Force Majeure Events
    • Changes of Law and Stabilization clauses
    • Consequences of Force Majeure and Changes of Law
    • Seller or Buyer Event of Default
    • Termination rights of PPA by either side
    • Put and Call options and buyout pricing methodology

    GROUP EXERCISE: Structured Risk Allocation between Seller and Buyer
    Delegates will work through a long list of questions on each topic to identify the risk taking on by the Seller and Buyer respectively by analysing sample clauses from a range of fuel based and renewable PPAs.

    DAY 3

    Module 1: PPA Tariff Structures

    • Understanding Levelized Cost of Electricity, Cost of Capital and their impact on tariffs
    • Tariff Structures for fuel based and intermittent power generation technologies
    • Take-or-Pay versus Take-and-Pay contracts
    • Capacity and Energy Charge and Pass-Through Clauses
    • The rational for indexation and escalation of local, foreign inflation and currencies
    • Seasonal weighting factors in a PPA
    • Locational Marginal Pricing and grid charges
    • Competitive Tenders for Tariffs with Cost Openers
    • Marginal Cost and the Merit Order Effect in competitive wholesale electricity markets
    • Contract for Differences, Sleeved and Synthetic PPA structures

    CASE STUDY: Split tariff and indexation in Egypt and Bangladesh PPAs

    GROUP EXERCISES: Tariff simulation and sensitivity analysis of key variables for various types of remuneration schemes


    • Quasi fiscal deficit and non-cost reflective tariffs within emerging markets
    • Corporate offtakers as the new kids on the block
    • Credit Support for Offtaker and Project Company's Obligations
    • Escrow Accounts and Structural measures as liquidity facilities
    • Government guarantees and limitations in obtaining them
    • Partial Risk Guarantee and the requirements of an indemnity agreement
    • Political Risk Insurance covering debt and equity providers
    • Currency Convertibility risk and difficulties to mitigate them
    • Currency risk hedging and risk guarantee fund
    • Local currency lending
    • Export Credit Agencies, Developments Finance Institutions and Multilateral Banks

    Module 3: Corporate & Hybrid PPAs

    • Hype or the next big thing? Drivers and market size for corporate PPAs
    • Basic types and key features of corporate PPAs
    • Specific risk towards corporate PPAs
    • Value & Revenue Streams for storage projects
    • Risk Assessment for storage projects
    • Specific PPA issues for storage projects
  • Our Tailored Learning Offering

    Do you have five or more people interested in attending this course? Do you want to tailor it to meet your company’s exact requirements? If you’d like to do either of these, we can bring this course to your company’s office. You could even save up to 50% on the cost of sending delegates to a public course and dramatically increase your ROI.

    If you want to run this course at a location convenient to you or if you want a completely customised learning solution, we can help.

    We produce learning solutions that are completely unique to your business. We’ll guide you through the whole process, from the initial consultancy to evaluating the success of the full learning experience. Our learning specialists ensure you get the maximum return on your training investment.

  • We have a combined experience of over 60 years providing learning solutions to the world’s major organisations and are privileged to have contributed to their success. We view our clients as partners and focus on understanding the needs of each organisation we work with to tailor learning solutions to specific requirements.

    We are proud of our record of customer satisfaction. Here is why you should choose us to help you achieve your goals and accelerate your career:

    • Quality – our clients consistently rate our performance ‘excellent’ or ‘outstanding’. Our average overall score awarded to us by our clients is nine out of ten.
    • Track record – 10/10 of the world’s largest banks have chosen us as there training provider and we have delivered training across the largest banks and have trained over 25,000 professionals.
    • Knowledge – our 100+ strong team of industry specialist trainers are world leading financial leaders and commentators, ensuring our knowledge base is second to none.
    • Reliability – if we promise it, we deliver it. We have delivered over 25,000 events both in person and online, using simultaneous translation to delegates from over 99 countries.
    • Recognition – we are accredited by the British Accreditation Council and the CPD Certification Service. In an independent review by Feefo we scored 4.2/5 on service and 4.7/5 on Coursecheck
This course can be run as an In-house or Tailored Learning programme


  • Christian Grutte


    Christian is an independent financial advisor with some 18 years’ experience in the power & renewable sector.He started out his career in a leading North European Strategy Consultancy, where he made substantial contributions to build the energy practice within the firm. He developed and implemented innovative distributions concepts for utility clients to face the competitive challenges of the newly liberalized German electricity market.In 2002, anticipating the tectonic shifts to arrive in the energy sector by renewables, Christian decided to set-uphis own advisory boutique to serve exclusively the renewable energy sector. In the following years, Christian,supported world leading Utilities, IPPs and Private Equity Investors, such as Iberdrola, AES, RWE, OMV, EnglefieldCapital and Hudson Clean Energy Partners to thoroughly assess international market opportunities andsuccessfully assemble project portfolios across mature and emerging European renewable markets. Based onthis work his clients were able to realize their investment strategy via the acquisition of local partners, greenfieldand operating wind, solar, biomass, geothermal or hydro projects with pipelines of many thousands MWcapacity.Christian became a recommended speaker at leading international energy conferences on topics of marketattractiveness and investment drivers for renewables. He formed part of the Working Group ‘Financing theEnergy Turnaround’ in Frankfurt and was one of the first members of the European Technology Platform forWind Energy, as well as of EWEA, ACORE, LAWEA, EUBIA, ESHA and EGEC.Since ten years, Christian, focuses on the particular challenges of power projects in emerging markets, such asBulgaria, Turkey, Egypt, Georgia, New Zealand, Taiwan SAR, South Korea, Mexico, South Africa or Pakistan. He flagsrisks to international investors coming from regulatory environment, grid connection and competitors. Developers are supported to raise equity, mitigates risks via the creation of international project consortia and achieve project finance bankability with domestic and international lenders.Since five years, Christian has successfully delivered energy finance training to hundreds of executives from morethan 80 countries in plus 50 seminars in the UK, Germany, Spain, Italy, Denmark, The Netherlands, UAE, the US,Chile, Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Egypt, Georgia, Cote d’Ivoire, Indonesia and Hong Kong SAR. Additionally he servedas a lecturer in the Renewable Energy Finance Studies Program of the Frankfurt School of Finance andManagement.Delegates come from leading financial institutions, industrial corporations and governments such as e.g.IFC, FMO, GIZ, IFU, Obviam, KfW, HBOR, European Investment Bank, UNDP, Asian Development Bank, AfricanDevelopment Bank, African Finance Corporation, JBIC, Industrial Development Corporation, Banco Santander,Enel, E.ON, Vattenfall, Endesa, Eskom, Total, Sumitomo, Gamesa, Siemens, Akka Enerji, Akzo Nobel, BP, Shell,Abengoa, Energomontaza, Mitsubishi, SgurrEnergy, PwC, Investec, RES, The Crown Estate, Coca-Cola,Procter&Gamble, Pacific Gas & Electric, Omrom, OFGEM, Munich Re, AES, Alstom, Schneider Electric, AvengGroup, Air Liquide, NEPRA, Saudi Aramco, King Saud University, Swicorp, Qatar Petroleum, K.A. CARE.Some of the topics delivered include Renewable Technologies & Economics, Independent Power Projects, ProjectFinance, Financial Analysis & Structuring, Risk Mitigation, Loan Term Sheets Elements, Power PurchaseAgreements, EPC and O&M contracts, Resource Assessments, Government Tenders and Policy Incentives,Electricity Market Structures & Liberalization, Electricity Pricing, Project Transactions & Valuations, InnovativeRenewable Business Models.Due to his versatile experience and personality, Christian has the ability to quickly relate to and leverage differentcultural and professional backgrounds of delegates. His objective is not only to train passionately on fascinatingenergy finance topics, but to deliver a seminar experience, where delegates weave together as a group of personsand exchange not merely business cards, but ideas to spur business beyond.Christian holds an MSc in Industrial Engineering and Management from the Technical University of Berlin and isa qualified RYA Yachtmaster Ocean Instructor. He is trilingual in English, Spanish and German and conversationalin French.